From recreating the process of powering the Washington (Reuters) sun to leveraging the scorching temperatures of our feet, scientists, businesses and venture capitalists continue to energize the planet without emitting greenhouse gases. Relies on high-tech methods.
See how such moonshot technology can accelerate the transition from fossil fuels at the United Nations Climate Conference in Scotland on Sunday. To do so, it can be talked about when delegations get together.
Traditional clean energy sources, such as solar and wind, can play a leading role in helping countries achieve their short-term climate goals, but in achieving their long-term goals. May need a higher tech solution.
It takes a lot of research, money, and a little luck to deploy these technologies. Here are some of the hottest technologies:
Fusion is the process of fueling the sun. After all, it can power your home.
This works when the nuclei of two atoms are exposed to extreme heat. This causes the two atoms to fuse into a new large atom, releasing a huge amount of energy in the process.
The secret here is that normal fuel hydrogen needs to be heated to 150 million degrees Celsius. This consumes a lot of energy at first. So far, no facility has conducted a fusion reaction that releases more energy than necessary. The operation of a power plant without fusion presents additional hurdles, such as an economical way to contain this heat. However, 4,444 scholars, including Oxford University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, say they are making progress. The UK Government plans to create a prototype
Fusion is superior to the fission of today’s nuclear reactors used to destroy atoms, including the fact that the fuel is made from water rather than radioactive uranium or plutonium. This means that the merger will not generate long-term radioactive waste that most politicians in the district do not want.
Advanced Nuclear Plants will be smaller than today’s huge nuclear reactors. Theoretically, they can be deployed in remote areas or supplement wind and solar power when the sun sets or the wind weakens. Also, in some versions, nuclear waste can be used as fuel.
However, construction of modern nuclear reactors is also an issue. Today’s large light water reactors offer economies of scale, but small light water reactors can be expensive.
It also produces more concentrated waste and operates on much more concentrated uranium than today’s fuel reactors. It could make some advanced nuclear reactors and their supply chains attractive to militants looking for materials that could more easily turn them into dirty bombs.
In the United States, Bill Gates will build a sodium reactor at Wyoming for about US $ 1 billion to power many power plants in the 2030s. I am planning. China, Russia and Japan are also working on this technology.
Carbon Absorption and Storage
Last month, Climeworks AG in Iceland opened the world’s largest facility for extracting carbon dioxide from the air in collaboration with carbon storage company Carbfix and pump According to both companies, it is underground and eventually becomes a rock.
It is one of 15 Direct Air Capture (DAC) systems worldwide, sucking a total of about 9,000 tonnes of CO2 from the sky each year. Impressive, it’s just the amount that comes out of the tail pipes of 2,000 cars.
High cost in the range of $ 600 per ton of captured carbon dioxide may limit growth in the short term. But as technology advances, costs will go down, supporters say. “This is where things get more interesting,” says Noah Deich, president of the nonprofit Carbon 180. He believes DAC will demonstrate its strengths after 2030. The Low-Tech Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), where
CO2 is recovered on industrial land rather than from the air, has a bumpy road behind it. Some systems for extracting CO2 from coal-fired power plants for underground installation have failed or are on hold With a tax cut of 4,444 under US law, loans to CCS will increase to about $ 85 per ton. However, critics, including the Sierra Club, an environmental group, say that providing large loans could encourage plants to continue to burn fossil fuels.
Hydrogen, which has been used as a rocket fuel for a long time, can be mixed with natural gas to make a cleaner combustion fuel, or it can be used in fuel cell vehicles to release water vapor as exhaust gas. It can also be obtained from ammonia as fuel for ships.
Today’s “gray hydrogen” is made from fossil fuels, so the Holy Grail is so-called clean hydrogen, produced by wind, solar, or nuclear power. But it costs about four times as much.
Another option, blue hydrogen, is made in a natural gas facility that recovers carbon, but some scientists say that this process can release methane. Hydrogen is not cleaner than natural gas itself.
Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest oil exporter, plans a $ 5 billion facility to produce clean hydrogen in the futuristic city of NEOM.
Geothermal Power Plant The
Geothermal Power Plant uses heat from the surface to 700 degrees Celsius (370 C) to generate steam, which turns a turbine to generate electricity. 4,444 countries, including the United States, Indonesia, the Philippines and Kenya, are leaders in geothermal power generation. However, technology needs to be strengthened to play an important role in providing alternatives to fossil fuels.
The United States is capable of meeting 10% of the country’s current electricity demand from geothermal energy, up from 0.4% today High Investment to control initial costs. Countries with low fossil fuel resources, such as Japan and Singapore, are working to expand geothermal energy.